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Your dog's spinal column has the following functions.

To house and protect its spinal cord.

To serve as an attachment for its muscles.

To allow attachment of its limbs.

To support its head.

To support the power generated in the hindquarters to the fore limbs.


Your dog's nervous system is the center of its thoughts, learning and consciousness. Nerves control muscle tension, blood vessel openings, glandular function, proprioception, pain, touch vibration. vision. hearing, temperature and other senses. Nerves connect their inner and outer worlds.


(Copyright 2009 Dr. William L. Ormston, DVM, Celina, Texas. Dr. Rick Kauffman, DC, Clifton, Colorado)







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